Analisis Waktu Sembuh Penderita Covid-19: Penelitian Multisenter

Fajar Desma Wahyudi, Dyah Wulan Sumekar Rengganis Wardhani, T.A Larasati

Abstract


Pandemi Covid-19 menimbulkan beban penyakit sangat tinggi. Hingga akhir Januari 2023 terdapat lebih 753 juta kasus konfirmasi global, dan pada awal April 2023 terdapat lebih 670 juta kasus konfirmasi serta lebih 161 juta kematian di Indonesia. Peneitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi waktu sembuh penderita Covid-19 di RS. Ini adalah penelitian observasional analitik dengan metode retrospektif. Subyek penelitian adalah pasien konfirmasi Covid-19 dirawat di lima RS rujukan di propinsi Lampung pada 1 Juni-31 Agustus 2021. Sampel dipilih secara total sampling dengan kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi, Data diambil dari Rekam Medik pasien di RS. Analisis dilakuan dengan Uji Kaplan-Meier dan Cox Proportional Hazard. Sebanyak 1133 pasien menjadi sampel penelitian ini. Sebagian besar penderita berjenis kelamin laki-laki (61 %), berusia kurang 65 tahun (79,2 %), berpenghasilan tidak tetap (42,9%), tinggal di perkotaan (61,5 %), pendidikan lulus SMA (30,1%), kategori derajat gejala sedang (59,9 %), memiliki komorbid (58,1%) dan kondisi keluar RS adalah perbaikan klinis (48%). Median waktu sembuh 14 hari (95%CI:12,552-15,448). Variabel prediktor waktu sembuh yaitu derajat gejala (p-value< 0,001; AHR=2,423; 95%CI:1,815-3,235), dan usia (p-value=0,007; AHR=1,660; 95%CI:1,152-2,392). Penderita berusia kurang 65 tahun dengan derajat gejala sedang berpeluang paling besar untuk sembuh lebih cepat. Untuk mengetahui apakah komorbid tertentu menjadi prediktor waktu sembuh pasien Covid-19 diperlukan penelitian berikutnya.

Keywords


Covid-19; Cox proportional hazard; Kaplan Meier; Multisenter; Waktu sembuh.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ausvet. (2022). Epitools. Sample Size to Estimate a Simple Proportion (Apparent Prevalence). https://epitools.ausvet.com.au/oneproportion

Badan Pusat Statistik Republik Indonesia. (2021). Berita resmi statistik: Hasil sensus penduduk 2020 (Issue 7).

Benham, J. L., Lang, R., Burns, K. K., Mackean, G., Léveillé, T., Mccormack, B., Sheikh, H., Fullerton, M. M., Tang, T., Boucher, J.-C., Constantinescu, C., Mourali, M., Oxoby, R. J., Manns, B. J., Hu, J., & Marshal, D. A. (2021). Attitudes , current behaviours and barriers to public health measures that reduce COVID-19 transmission : A qualitative study to inform public health messaging. PLoS ONE, 16(2), 1–8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246941

Chams, N., Chams, S., Badran, R., Shams, A., Araji, A., Raad, M., Mukhopadhyay, S., Stroberg, E., Duval, E. J., Barton, L. M., & Hussein, I. H. (2020). COVID-19 : A Multidisciplinary Review. Frontiers in Public Health, 8(July), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00383

Das, A. K., & Gopalan, S. S. (2020). Epidemiology of COVID-19 and Predictors of Recovery in the Republic of Korea. Hindawi Pulmonary Medicine, 2020. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/7291698

Deng, Y., Liu, W., Liu, K., Fang, Y.-Y., Shang, J., Zhou, L., Wang, K., Leng, F., Wei, S., Chen, L., & Liu, H.-G. (2020). Clinical characteristics of fatal and recovered cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan , China : a retrospective study. Chinese Medical Journal, 133(11), 1261–1267. https://doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000824

Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi Lampung. (2022). Informasi Covid 19 Pemerintah Provinsi Lampung. Bandar Lampung. https://covid19.lampungprov.go.id/

Galvao, M. H. R., & Roncalli, A. G. (2020). Factors associated with increased risk of death from COVID-19 : a survival analysis based on confirmed cases. Rev Bras Epidemiol, 23(E200106), 1–10.

Griffith, D. M., Sharma, G., Holliday, C. S., Enyia, O. K., Valliere, M., Semlow, A. R., Stewart, E. C., & Blumenthal, R. S. (2020). Men and COVID-19 : A Biopsychosocial Approach to Understanding Sex Differences in Mortality and Recommendations for Practice and Policy Interventions. Preventing Chronic Disease: Public Health Research, Practice and Policy, 17(63), 1–9. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.5888/pcd17.200247

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Xingwang;, L., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., Gu, X., Cheng, Z., Yu, T., Xia, J., Wei, Y., Wu, W., Xie, X., Yin, W., Li, H., Xiao, Y., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(20), 497–506.

Jamaludin, A. N. (2017). Sosiologi perkotaan: memahami masyarakat kota dan problematikanya (Cetakan ke). CV Pustaka Setia.

Jin, Y., Yang, H., Ji, W., Wu, W., Chen, S., Zhang, W., & Duan, G. (2020). Intuition on virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and control of COVID-19. Viruses, 12(372), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040372

Kleinbaum, D. G., & Klein, M. (2012). Survival Analysis: A Self-Learning Text (3rd ed.). Springer US.

Li, Jie, Huang, D. Q., Zou, B., Yang, H., Hui, W. Z., Rui, F., Yee, N. T. S., Liu, C., Nerurkar, S. N., Kai, J. C., Teng, M. L. P., Li, X., Zeng, H., Borghi, J. A., Henry, L., Cheung, R., & Nguyen, M. H. (2020). Epidemiology of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Characteristics, Risk factors and Outcomes. Journal of Medical Virology, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26424

Li, Jingwen, Luo, H., Deng, G., Chang, J., Qiu, X., Liu, C., & Qin, B. (2021). Multidimensional Evaluation of All-Cause Mortality Risk and Survival Analysis for Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 18(14), 3140–3149. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijms.58889

Li, X., Xu, S., Yu, M., Wang, K., Tao, Y., Zhou, Y., Shi, J., Zhou, M., Wu, B., Yang, Z., Zhang, C., Yue, J., Zhang, Z., Renz, H., Liu, X., Xie, J., Xie, M., & Zhao, J. (2020). Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in Wuhan. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 146(1), 110–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.006

Linasari, D. (2021). Survival Analysis of Covid 19 Patients from Two Hospitals in Cimahi, Indonesia. Advances in Health Sciences Research, 37(January), 166–171.

Lu, W., Yu, S., Liu, H., Suo, L., Tang, K., Hu, J., Shi, Y., & Hu, K. (2021). Survival Analysis and Risk Factors in COVID-19 Patients. Disaster Medicine and Public Health, 82, 1–6.

Multazamiyah, S. A., Sary, L., & Aryastuti, N. (2021). Analisis Survival Waktu Sembuh Pasien COVID-19 di Rumah Sakit Pertamina Bintang Amin Bandar Lampung. Journal of Medical SUrgial Concerns, 1(2), 65–74. https://doi.org/doi.org/10.56922/msc.v1i2.130

Neumann-podczaska, A., Chojnicki, M., Karbowski, L. M., Al-Saad, S. R., Hashmi, A. A., Chudek, J., Tobis, S., Kropinska, S., Mozer-Lisewska, I., Suwalska, A., Tykarski, A., & Wieczorowska-Tobis, K. (2020). Clinical Characteristics and Survival Analysis in a Small Sample of Older COVID-19 Patients with Defined 60-Day Outcome. International Jornal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(8362), 1–12. https://doi.org/doi:10.3390/ijerph17228362

Nijman, G., Wientjes, M., Ramjith, J., Janssen, N., Hoogerwerf, J., Abbink, E., Blaauw, M., Dofferhoff, T., Apeldoorn, M. van, Veerman, K., Mast, Q. De, Oever, J. ten, Hoefsloot, W., Reijers, M. H., Creven, R. van, & Maat, J. S. van de. (2021). Risk factors for in-hospital mortality in laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in the Netherlands : A competing risk survival analysis. Plos One, 16(3), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249231

Nurhayati, C., Rosyidah, I., Jamilah, J., & Kasyfiyulalah. (2020). Teori perubahan sosial (Edisi 3). Universitas Terbuka.

Olaimat, A. N., Aolymat, I., Elsahoryi, N., Shahbaz, H. M., & Holley, R. A. (2020). Attitudes , Anxiety , and Behavioral Practices Regarding COVID-19 among University Students in Jordan : A Cross-Sectional Study. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 103(3), 1177–1183. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0418

Park, M., Cook, A. R., Lim, J. T., Sun, Y., & Dickens, B. L. (2020). A Systematic Review of COVID-19 Epidemiology Based on Current Evidence.

Rashedi, J., Poor, B. M., Asgharzadeh, V., Pourostadi, M., Kafil, H. S., Vegari, A., Tayebi-khosroshahi, H., & Asgharzadeh, M. (2020). Risk Factors for COVID-19. Le Infezioni in Medicina, 4, 469–474.

Rod, J., Oviedo-trespalacios, O., & Cortes-ramirez, J. (2020). A brief-review of the risk factors for covid-19 severity. Revista de Saude Publica, 54(60), 1–11. https://doi.org/http://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054002481

Rozaliyani, A., Savitri, A. I., Setianingrum, F., Shelly, T. N., Ratnasari, V., Kuswindarti, R., Salama, N., Oktavia, D., Widyastuti, & Handayani, D. (2020). Factors Associated with Death in COVID-19 Patients in Jakarta , Indonesia : An Epidemiological Study. Acta Med Indonesia, 52(3), 246–254.

Salinas-Escudero, G., Carrillo-vega, M. F., Granados-garcía, V., Martínez-valverde, S., Toledano-toledano, F., & Garduño-espinosa, J. (2020). A survival analysis of COVID-19 in the Mexican population. BMC Public Health, 20(1616), 1–8. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09721-2

Sasmita, S., & Amirullah, A. N. (2021). Analisis Survival Kapplan Meier Pasien COVID-19 di RSUP Dr.Wahidin Sudirohusodo Makassar. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas, 44(5), 280–288.

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19. (2023). Peta Sebaran. Peta Sebaran. https://covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran

Simatupang, M. D., & Arcana, I. M. (2021). Risiko Kematian Pasien Covid-19 dan Faktor yang Memengaruhinya: Studi kasus di RSUP Adam Malik Sumatera Utara Periode Maret-Oktober 2020. Prosiding: Seminar Nasional Official Statistics 2021, 2020, 889–898. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.34123/semnasoffstat.v2021i1

Song, Q., Cao, C., Xiang, Y., Ruan, L., & Qian, G. (2022). Age-Specific Transmissibility Change of COVID-19 and Associations With Breathing Air Volume , Preexisting Immunity , and Government Response. Frontiers in Public Health, 10(March), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.850206

Sousa, G., Garces, T., Cestari, V., Florencio, R., Moreira, T., & Pereira, M. L. D. (2020). Mortality and survival of COVID-19. Epidemiology and Infection, 148(e123), 1–6.

Surendra, H., Elyazar, I. R., Djaafara, B. A., Ekawati, L. L., Saraswati, K., Adrian, V., Widyastuti, Oktavia, D., Salama, N., Lina, R. N., Andrianto, A., Lestari, K. D., Burhan, E., Shankar, A. H., Thwaites, G., Baird, J. K., & Hamers, R. L. (2021). Clinical characteristics and mortality associated with COVID-19 in Jakarta , Indonesia : A hospital-based retrospective cohort study. The Lancet Regional Health - Western Pacific, 9(100108). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100108

Susanto, A. D., Rozaliyani, A., Prasetyo, B., Agustin, H., Baskoro, H., Arifin, A. R., Pratama, S., Zaini, J., Hasto, B. D., Ratmono, T., Savitri, A. I., Samudro, E., Husain, B., Nawas, A., & Burhan, E. (2021). Epidemiological and Clinical Features of COVID-19 Patients at National Emergency Hospital Wisma Atlet Kemayoran, Jakarta, Indonesia. Kesmas: Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional (National Public Health Journal, 16((Special Issue1)), 11–16. https://doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v0i0.5233

Thai, P. Q., Toan, D. T. T., Son, D. T., Van, H. T. H., Minh, L. N., Hung, L. X., Toan, N. Van, Hoat, L. N., Luong, D. H., Khue, L. N., Khoa, N. T., & Huong, L. T. (2020). Factors associated with the duration of hospitalisation among COVID-19 patients in Vietnam : A survival analysis. Epidemiology and Infection, 148(e114), 1–7. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0950268820001259

Tian, R., Wu, W., Wang, C., Pang, H., Zhang, Z., Xu, H., Luo, Q., Gao, P., Shi, J., Li, W., Qian, H., Guo, F., Li, T., Liu, Z., Wang, J., Zhou, X., Qin, Y., Yan, X., & Zhang, S. (2020). Clinical characteristics and survival analysis in critical and non ‑ critical patients with COVID ‑ 19 in Wuhan , China : a single ‑ center retrospective case control study. Scientific Reports, 10(17524), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74465-3

Tolossa, T., Wakuma, B., Gebre, D. S., Atomssa, E. M., Getachew, M., Fetensa, G., Ayala, D., & Turi, E. (2021). Time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among patients admitted to treatment center of Wollega University Referral Hospital ( WURH ), Western Ethiopia : Survival analysis of retrospective cohort study. PLoS ONE, 16(6), 1–12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1371/journal. pone.0252389

Voinsky, I., Baristaite, G., & Gurwitz, D. (2020). Effects of age and sex on recovery from COVID-19: Analysis of 5769 Israeli patients. Letter to the Editor/Journal of Infection, 81, e102–e103.

World Health Organization. (2022). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard With Vaccination Data: Indonesia. World Health Organization. https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/id

World Health Organization. (2020a). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report – 42. In World Health Organization (Vol. 42). https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/situation-report---42

World Health Organization. (2020b). Novel Coronavirus (‎2019-nCoV)‎: situation report, 1. In World Health Organization (Issue January). https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/330760

World Health Organization. (2022). Weekly Operational Update on COVID-19. In World Health Organization Weekly Operational Update on COVID-19 (Issue 97). https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-operational-update-on-covid-19---30-march-2022

World Health Organization. (2023a). Covid-19 Indonesia situation. World Health Organization Dashboard Indonesia. https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/id

World Health Organization. (2023b). COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological Update. In World Health Organization: Covid-19 weekly epidemiological update (Issue 128). https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19---1-february-2023

Wu, J., Li, W., Shi, X., Chen, Z., Jiang, B., Liu, J., Wang, D., Liu, C., Meng, Y., Ciu, L., Yu, J., Cao, H., & Li, L. (2020). Early antiviral treatment contributes to alleviate the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus disease ( COVID-19 ). Journal of Internal Medicine, 288, 128–138.

Wulandari, R. D., & Laksono, A. D. (2019). Urban-Rural Disparity: the Utilization of Primary Healthcare Centers Among Elderly in East Java, Indonesia. Jurnal Administrasi Kesehatan Indonesia, 7(2), 147–154. https://doi.org/10.20473/jaki.v7i2.2019.147-154

Zhang, Y., Geng, X., Tan, Y., Li, Q., Xu, C., Xu, J., Hao, L., Zeng, Z., Luo, X., Liu, F., & Wang, H. (2020). New understanding of the damage of SARS-CoV-2 infection outside the respiratory system. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 127(April), 110–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110195




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26630/jk.v14i2.3784

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Published by: Politeknik Kesehatan Tanjung Karang

ISSN Online 2548-5695 | ISSN Print 2086-7751
Jl. Soekarno-Hatta No. 6 Bandar Lampung Cq. Tim Jurnal Kesehatan Politeknik Kesehatan Tanjung Karang.
Telepon 0721-783852 Fax. 0721-773918, email: jk@poltekkes-tjk.ac.id


Visitor Statistic :

View My Stats


Creative Commons License
Jurnal Kesehatan is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Flag Counter