Model Prediktor Karakteristik Orang Tua dan Status Gizi Terhadap Perkembangan Anak Menggunakan Skrining Denver II

Ika Fitria Elmeida, Endang Achadi, Monica Dara Delia Suja

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Nutrisi diperlukan untuk perkembangan otak yang mempengaruhi perkembangan anak. Masa balita merupakan masa krisis sehingga diperlukan stimulasi agar berkembang secara optimal. Skrining perkembangan Denver II mempunyai reliability yang cukup tinggi untuk mendeteksi gangguan perkembangan pada anak. Tujuan: Untuk memperoleh model prediktor karakteristik orang tua dan status gizi terhadap perkembangan anak umur 36–60 bulan dengan menggunakan skrining perkembangan Denver II. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian cross sectional yang dilaksanakan di wilayah Sukamaju, Kota Bandar Lampung, sejak bulan Februari hingga April 2021. Jumlah subyek penelitian sebesar 123 anak yang dipilih berdasarkan metode cluster random sampling. Perkembangan anak dinilai dari DDST dengan kriteria normal dan suspek jika terdapat ≥1 delay dan/atau ≥2 caution. Status nutrisi anak diukur berdasarkan pengukuran antropometri untuk berat berdasarkan tinggi dengan skala dari WHO-CGS. Analisis data menggunakan chi-square, korelasi phi dan multiple logistic regression. Hasil:. Terdapat hubungan yang sangat bermakna antara status gizi dan perkembangan anak. Anak yang kurus sebagian besar mengalami perkembangan suspek.  Anak kurus mempunyai risiko keterlambatan perkembangan sebesar 9,1 kali (95% CI: 2,068–40,166) dibandingkan dengan anak gizi normal. Hasil dari analisi multivariable menunjukkan bahwa faktor paling dominan yang paling berhubungan dengan perkembangan anak adalah pekerjaan ibu. Simpulan: Perkembangan anak umur 36–60 bulan lebih baik pada status gizi normal dan pada ibu tidak bekerja. Orang tua diharapkan selalu memantau status gizi anak agar perkembangan anak optimal.

Background: Nutrients are necessary for brain development, which obviously affects the child's development. Under five children is critical period so that the necessary stimulation for development optimal. Denver development screening test (DDST), has reability high enough to detect the presence of developmental disorders in children. Purpose: To obtain the model predictor of parents characteristic and nutritional status in children development in children aged 36–60 months with using the Denver II screening development test. Methods: The cross sectional study was conducted in the region of Sukamaju BandarLampung, Lampung Province, from February to April 2021. Subjects were 123 children selected using cluster random sampling. Child development was determined by DDST with the normal criteria and suspect if obtained ≥1 delay and/or ≥2 caution. Nutritional status of children in the measure based on anthropometric examination weight for height by the WHO–CGS. The data analysis was processed using chi-square, phi correlation, and multiple logistic regression. Results: The results obtained that in children with suspected developmental nutritional status of normal and wasted, respectively 24.3% and 75%. In working mothers 56.3% had children with suspected developmental and mothers did not work 14.7%. The results of multivariable analysis showed the most dominant factor related to child development was the work of mothers (p<0.001; had greatest prevalence ratio 11.6; 95% CI: 3.809–35.221). The nutritional status of children associated with the development of children (p<0.003; prevalence ratio 9.1; 95% CI: 2.068–40.166). Conclusion: The development of children aged 36-60 months is better in normal nutritional status and the mother does not work. Parents should be monitoring their children nutritional status in order to have optimal children development.



Keywords


Denver II; pekerjaan ibu; perkembangan; status gizi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26630/jkmsaw.v15i1.3368

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