Pengelolaan Limbah Infeksius di Rumah Sakit pada Masa Pandemi COVID-19 (Literature Review)

Suparni Suparni, Melia Isnaini, Sri Komalaningsih

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Salah satu dampak pandemi COVID-19 adalah peningkatan volume limbah infeksius di Rumah Sakit. Aspek penting dalam pengendalian wabah COVID-19 yaitu penangangan limbah infeksius yang dihasilkan, baik dari penderita ataupun petugas medis. Limbah infeksius yang dihasilkan pada masa pandemi COVID-19 ini mengalami peningkatan. Jika pengelolaan limbah infeksius tidak dilaksanakan dengan tata kelola yang baik dan benar dapat mengakibatkan dampak negatif bagi kesehatan manusia, mahluk hidup, dan lingkungan hidup. Tujuan: Penulisan literatur review ini untuk menganalisis, merangkum dan mengetahui pengelolaan limbah infeksius COVID-19 di rumah sakit.  Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode telaah artikel melalui Google Schoolar, Pubmed, dan Science Direct. Artikel yang didapatkan diawal sebelum dilakukan seleksi dengan metode PRISMA sebanyak 1.195 artikel. Hasil: Hasil literatur review dari 10 artikel yang terseleksi ditemukan bahwa permasalahan saat ini adalah jumlah limbah infeksius selama pandemic COVID-19 mengalami peningkatan. Sistem pengolahan limbah medis yang menggunakan insinerator di beberapa fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan di Indonesia menyebabkan pencemaran udara, kebisingan, menghasilkan residu (jarum suntik dan residu pecahan kaca) dan menghasilkan abu yang mengandung logam berat. Simpulan: Komitmen rumah sakit dalam sistem pengelolaan limbah medis padat belum sesuai harapan, sarana penunjang belum semua terpenuhi, tahapan pengelolaan limbah medis padat dan pelabelan telah dilakukan tapi pelabelan hanya ditandai dengan membedakan warna plastik. Limbah rumah sakit dapat memberi dampak negatif dan mendatangkan pencemaran dari suatu proses kegiatan. Limbah infeksius yang dihasilkan oleh wabah COVID-19 telah menimbulkan masalah lingkungan dan kesehatan utama di banyak negara. Pengelolaan limbah infeksius yang berasal dari rumah sakit perlu dilakukan dengan aman dan benar sesuai standar operasional prosedur.

Background: One of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic is the increase in the volume of infectious waste in hospitals. An important aspect in controlling the COVID-19 outbreak is the handling of infectious waste generated, both from patients and medical staff. Infectious waste generated during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased. If infectious waste management is not carried out with good and correct management, it can have negative impacts on human health, living things, and the environment. Purpose: The purpose of writing the literature review is to analyze, summarize and find out the management of COVID-19 infectious waste in hospitals.  Methods: This study uses an article review method through Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct.[U1] [SK2]  The articles obtained at the beginning before being selected using the PRISMA method were 1,195 articles. Results: Literature a review of 10 selected articles found that the current problem is the amount of infectious waste during the COVID-19 pandemic has increased. Medical waste treatment systems that use incinerators in several health care facilities in Indonesia cause air pollution, and noise, produce residues (syringe and glass shard residue) and produce ash containing heavy metals. Conclusion: The hospital's commitment to the solid medical waste management system has not met expectations, the supporting facilities have not been fulfilled, and the stages of solid medical waste management and labeling have been carried out but the labeling is only marked by distinguishing the color of the plastic. Hospital waste can have a negative impact and bring pollution from an activity process. Infectious waste generated by the COVID-19 outbreak has caused major environmental and health problems in many countries. Management of infectious waste originating from hospitals needs to be carried out safely and correctly through several stages, namely sorting, storing, transporting, processing, storing, final disposal, and destruction.


Keywords


Pengelolaan limbah infeksius 2; COVID-19; 3; Rumah Sakit

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26630/jkmsaw.v15i1.3133

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