Dampak COVID-19 pada Kesehatan Ibu Hamil : Literature Review

Chahya Kharin Herbawani

Abstract


Background: Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that can cause illness from mild to severe symptoms. COVID-19 attacks of all ages including vulnerable groups such as pregnant women. Numbers of previous studies on the coronavirus, (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV), stated that pregnant women have a higher risk of severe disease, morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. Purpose: Currently there is limited research on COVID-19 in relation to pregnancy and childbirth. This study aims to determine the risks and impacts of COVID-19 on pregnancy and childbirth.

Methods: This study used a systematic review method. Sources of literature data were obtained from Google Scholar, PubMed, and Proquest taken from 2019-2020. Results: The results of the study based on 13 articles with a total of 363 pregnant women showed that there was no difference in the signs and symptoms experienced by pregnant women with Covid-19 infection when compared to the general population. Until now, a number of studies have been conducted to determine the vertical transmission of COVID-19 from mother to fetus. A number of samples such as umbilical cord blood, amniotic fluid, neonatal throat swab, breast milk, and vaginal secretions were taken for examination and showed negative results. Conclusion: Maternal-fetal transmission of COVID-19 was undetected in the majority of reported cases. But, pregnancy monitoring with COVID-19 and steps to prevent neonatal infection is still needed. Mothers who are infected are at a higher risk of having severe respiratory complications.

Latar Belakang: Coronavirus merupakan keluarga besar virus yang dapat mengakibatkan penyakit dari gejala ringan sampai gejala berat. COVID-19 menyerang semua usia termasuk kelompok rentan, salah satunya ibu hamil. Sejumlah penelitian mengenai coronavirus sebelumnya, (SARS-CoV dan MERS-CoV), menyebutkan bahwa ibu hamil berisiko lebih tinggi terhadap penyakit parah, morbiditas, dan mortalitas dibandingkan dengan populasi umum. Tujuan: Saat ini masih sedikit penelitian mengenai COVID-19 hubungannya dengan kehamilan dan persalinan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui risiko dan dampak dari COVID-19 terhadap kehamilan dan persalinan.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode systematic review. Sumber data literatur diperoleh dari Google Scholar, PubMed, dan Proquest yang diambil dari tahun 2019-2020. Hasil: Hasil penelitian berdasarkan 13 artikel dengan total 363 ibu hamil menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan tanda dan gejala yang dialami oleh ibu hamil dengan infeksi covid-19 bila dibandingkan dengan populasi umum. Hingga saat ini sejumlah studi telah dilakukan untuk mengetahui adanya transmisi vertikal COVID-19 dari ibu ke janin. Sejumlah sampel seperti darah tali pusat, cairan ketuban, swab tenggorokan neonatal, ASI, dan sekresi vagina telah diambil untuk dilakukan pemeriksaan dan menunjukkan hasil negatif. Simpulan: Penularan ibu-janin dari COVID-19 tidak terdeteksi pada sebagian besar kasus yang dilaporkan.  Namun pemantauan kehamilan yang cermat dengan COVID-19 dan langkah-langkah untuk mencegah infeksi neonatal tetap diperlukan. Ibu yang terinfeksi berisiko lebih tinggi memiliki komplikasi pernapasan berat.


Keywords


Covid-19; Public health; Maternal; Pregnancy

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26630/jkm.v13i2.2253

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Published by: Politeknik Kesehatan Tanjungkarang, Indonesia
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